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Sunday, 10 March 2019

Articles ( viashiria )



Kiswahili na kiingereza ni lugha zinazotofautiana sana katika sarufi . Tofauti kubwa ni matumizi ya kitu kinachoitwa article. Hizi articles hazipo kwenye kiswahili, lakini zinatumika sana katika kiingereza.

Hizi ndizo Articles zote tatu zinazotumika katika kiingereza :


The
A
An

Maneno haya hutumika kutambulisha majina ( nouns ) .

MIFANO:

I have a dog (Nina mbwa).
They came in an airplane (Walikuja kwenye ndege).

She likes the weather here in Tanzania (Anapenda hali ya hewa huku Tanzania).

Sasa tuangalie nouns zilizo kwenye mifano na articles zao:

ARTICLE - NOUN
A    - dog
An - airplane
The - weather


Tumeona articles zikitumika kwenye mifano. Inatubidi sasa tuzungumzie maana articles zinazoongezwa kwenye sentensi. Articles zinahusu ufahamu wa msikilizaji kuhusu mada ya sentensi. Mzungumzaji anachagua article yake kulingana na msikilizaji anavyofahamu noun inayofuata article.


Articles zinagawanyika kwenye makundi mawili: definite article na indefinite article

DEFINITE ARTICLE ( Uhakika ) - The
INDEFINITE ARTICLE ( isiyo ya uhakika ) - A na AN .


JINSI YA KUTUMIA INDEFINITE ARTICLE ( A na AN )

A na AN - article hizi hutumika kwa majina yaliyopo kwenye umoja ambayo yanaweza kuhesabika ( countable noun ) .

Pia A na AN hutumika ku

JINSI YA KUTUMIA  " A " na " AN " .

A - hutumika kabla ya jina linaloanza na sauti ya konsonanti ( b, c , d , f , g ... )

AN - hutumika kwa majina yanayoanza na sauti ya irabu " vowel "  ( a , e , i , o , u ) .

Kumbuka hapo tunaangalia sauti na wala sio jinsi neno linavyoandikwa .

Kwa mfano neno " European " neno hili linaanza herufi " E " ambayo vowel , lakini jinsi linavyatamkwa linatamkwa kama " Yuropean " hivyo linaanza na sauti ya " Y " ambayo ni consonant ... Hivyo hapo tunatumia article " A " ( Kwa kifupi sisi tunaangalia sauti ya neno linavyotamkwa ) .

Mifano ya article " A " .

A car . ( ka )
A book . ( buk )
A hotel . ( hotel )
A room . ( rum )
A european . ( yuropean )
A university . ( yunivesiti )

Mifano ya article " AN " .

Kama hapo juu nilivyosema kuwa article " AN "  hutumika kwa majina yanayoanza na sauti ya irabu ( vowel ) yani " a , e , i , o , u "

An apple . ( epo )
An umbrella. ( ambrella )
An egg . ( egg )
An hour . ( awa )


JINSI YA KUTUMIA DEFINITE ARTICLE   " THE " .

THE - hutumikwa kwa majina ( nouns ) yote ambayo :

1. Ni maalumu na kipekee

The capital of Tanzania is Dodoma.
( Mji mkuu wa Tanzania ni Dodoma )
Dodoma ipo moja hivyo ni maalumu .

I saw the moon last night .
( Niliuona mwezi usiku uliopita )

Mwezi uko mmoja ( kipekee )

Please switch off the TV when you finish .
( Tafadhali zima Tv ukimaliza )

2. Yashajulikana .

Tunatumia THE kwa kutaja jina ambalo unaongea nae tayari kashalijua au umeshalitaja mara ya kwanza .

I have found the book that I lost .
( Nimekipata kitabu ambacho nilikipoteza )

3. Majina ( nouns ) ya wingi .

Tunatumia THE kutaja majina ya wingi .

Mfano :

The apples
The books
The hotels .

Hivyo huwezi kusema " An apples / a books .

Kufahamu zaidi , angalia huu mfano :

" A man and a woman were walking in Kariakoo street . The woman saw a dress the liked in a shop . She asked the man if he could buy the dress for her . He said : " Do you think the shop will accept a mobile payment ? I don't have money in my pocket "

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